Frank Leslie’s Gazette of Fashion: A Model For How We Read Magazines

This post was intern Jess Zaccagnini.

Even with the "burn" marks from the adhesive used, this broadside is still a remarkable piece of ephemera!
Even with the “burn” marks from the adhesive used, this broadside is still a remarkable piece of ephemera!

Looking at a poster of Frank Leslie’s Gazette of Fashion and Fine Needlework from the 1850s is similar to stepping through the looking-glass of women’s fashion magazines. On such a poster one finds the latest hair styles and the most fashionable dresses, jackets, and hats. One hundred and forty years later, if one was to walk past a magazine rack the content would be more or less the same.

As a teenage girl growing up in the twenty-first century, I can recall numerous times I would ask my mom to buy the latest copy of Seventeen or Cosmopolitan. I could not wait to bend the binding and discover new things about femininity: new make-up tricks, new ways to style my hair, tips on how to socialize. My mind would reel at the thought of trying out what I learned as soon as I could; magazines helped me in discovering who I wanted to be. They answered questions I did not dare to voice out loud. If the magazines of today could have such an impact on my life, what sort of effect did magazines of the nineteenth century have on its readers?

As it turns out, The Boston Globe asked the same question back in August of 1877 when 20150206_154007(1)they published an article titled “Influence of Magazines.” The consensus of the time was that while magazines did “put your own thoughts into vigorous English” they also created “few writers [that] gleam with bright intelligence” (“Influence of Magazines” 1). In other words, magazines did not produce great works of literary merit; they were soft, light, entertaining, and perhaps detrimental to our intellectual growth.

Looking closer, perhaps these “superficial” magazines hold more merit than given credit. They may not produce epic, legendary documents of the written word but they do capture, in less than one hundred pages, a snapshot of the social order of the time period. Women’s magazines cater to the topics that are most on the minds of their readers. O Magazine is geared towards women that average 47-years-old and promotes a “core mix of advice, spirituality, beauty, fashion, health, lifestyle, and fitness” (“O Positive”). With over two million subscribers, it would seem these topics are at the forefront of the minds of women in today’s world. Continue reading Frank Leslie’s Gazette of Fashion: A Model For How We Read Magazines

Out of the Saloons and Into the Drawing Rooms: The Work of C.P. Meier

This post was written by intern Elise Plyler.

2015-02-10 15.55.26“The Bookmaker’s Sweetheart,” a hand-colored lithograph by Clarence Paul Meier, was created during the Prohibition, but it vividly rejects the ideals of moral sobriety that the “noble experiment” hoped to encourage. The vibrant print depicts a raucous and irreverent scene: a voluptuouBSJockeys woman flirts with and distracts the clientele of the titular bookmaker as they make illegal wagers on a horse race. A second woman on her own drinks contentedly while a third flirts with a jockey. The jockey’s picture hangs on the wall over a crack and beneath a reversed horseshoe, hinting at an underhanded attempt to influence the results of the race. It seems that a loss would be in the bookmaker’s best interest and he is throwing drinks, women, and superstition at the jockey to ensure it happens.

The scene pictured obviously predates the era in which the print was designed. For instance, the figures are clothed in fashion that harkens back to the “Gay ‘90s,” nearly forty years before the image’s 1931 printing (“1890s in Western Fashion”). Continue reading Out of the Saloons and Into the Drawing Rooms: The Work of C.P. Meier

JoBa Cafe: A Humble Beginning

This post is written by Ede Reynolds and is the first post in a series of posts about the history and day-to-day affairs of the John Bale Book company.

When Dan begins digging in boxes he tucked away years before, you never know what he’ll unearth.  This time it was a bookshop log I started when, in 2003, we moved from our location in the basement of Howland Hughes to our present location on Grand St. Our present 158 Grand St. store is a far cry from where we stared–down the street in a 400 s/f space.

A wonderful photo Dan Gaeta and Edith Reynolds, the owners of the John Bale Book Company  in the prime of their life.
A wonderful photo Dan Gaeta and Edith Reynolds, the owners of the John Bale Book Company in the prime of their life.

I hope this blog will allow us to highlight some of the things we do in the café and some of our community activities, but for today, I’d like to lay down the foundation of how we began in 1992.  It may have been empty nest or a mid-life crisis but Dan and I wanted to have our own business.  But what?  Dan was certain it had to be downtown for sentimental reasons (he started working as a delivery boy at age 13 for Cappy’s Deli on South Main St. He went on to earn a business degree from NYU so felt confident the world would be his oyster).

Me?  I was on a sabbatical from my job at what was then called Mattatuck Community College and on the board of directors for Literacy Volunteers.  I knew there were too few opportunities for our students to buy inexpensive books.  Voila! A used bookshop would be our experiment.

The storefront was a “white box” thanks to the landlord Gary Bellard and he offered us an inexpensive rent in order to fill the space.  Remember, in 1992  the Great Downtown Business Exodus had begun.

Continue reading JoBa Cafe: A Humble Beginning

In Our Booth at PAPERMANIA: Harry Dwight Nims, Attorney at Law

This post was written by Bilal Tajildeen.

Part of the excitement of working at an antiquarian bookshop is the chance to participate in shows. This weekend (January 10th and 11th), Papermania is being held at the XL Center in Hartford, Connecticut and the John Bale Book Company is once again proudly taking a booth. As a company, we’ve been participating in Papermania for well over 15 years and this year we have some truly exciting material that is coming with us.

This is the legal brief containing the case of General Mills vs The Best Foods. The case in was regard to CheeriOats (known to us today as Cheerios).
This is the legal brief containing the case of General Mills vs The Best Foods. The case was in regard to CheeriOats (known to us today as Cheerios).

One particular item that I find really fascinating is a small archive of collected and bound legal briefs relating to the copyright and trademark cases taken on by 20th century attorney Harry Dwight Nims. These 8 bound volumes of legal briefs from Attorney Nims’s practice provide a representative selection of his work from the 1910s to the early 1950s. The books, comprised of printed and carbon copies of in-house papers, official court documents, and related material, are often extra-illustrated with original evidence and labels used in defense of copyright and trademark court hearings. Hand-written notations, throughout, combined with photocopied and mimeographed advertisements, labels, and articles provide unique insight into the minutiae of copyright and trademark cases of the 20th century.

Continue reading In Our Booth at PAPERMANIA: Harry Dwight Nims, Attorney at Law

George E. Matteson, Map Maker

Matteson’s own advertisement on the border of the map.

This post was written by Bilal Tajildeen.

One of the first rules of being a bookman that I learned from Dan is to keep an eye out for anything that may catch it– items laid in to a book, an oddly marbled fore-edge, or a certain aesthetic that seems ahead of its time. That’s why this George E. Matteson 1939 map of Scituate, Rhode Island is a wonderful example of a good find. According to an obituary found online, George Matteson, born April 22, 1902, died August 27, 1977, was a mapmaker, a historian, and a folklorist. While I’ve been able to find at least a dozen other

A full-length view of the map (photo taken in our rare book room), measuring approx. 41" by 47.5".
A full-length view of the map (photo taken in our rare book room), measuring approx. 41″ by 47.5″.

maps credited to him, it’s unclear whether or not all of his maps are imbued with such a powerfully creative essence as this one. While I was examining the map in order to take photographs for this post, before I knew it, I had a folder of 45 images, from which I had to select the handful I’ve posted here. If I let my eye rest– even for a second– I had to snap a photo. It is, truly, a pleasure trip for the eyes.

(Click “CONTINUE READING” for more details)

Continue reading George E. Matteson, Map Maker

Bishop Jonathan Shipley: A Voice of Justice and Reason in Troubled Times

This post was written by intern John McDonald.

In 1773, the relationship between Great Britain and her American colonies was being sorely tried by political conflict. This was upsetting to many Englishmen, who wished for their country to maintain its dominance, not least among them merchants who profited from the outrageous tariffs, taxes and other mercantile laws imposed upon the colonists. Another faction of shipley sermon title page ( wished for harmony between the mother country and her unruly children, and these were the men of God, in particular Bishop Jonathan Shipley, who believed that the Christian bond between Britain and the colonists was, by duty, meant to be a sharing of “religion, culture, peace, and happiness” (Carey, 1). In his famous sermon delivered before the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts on February 19, 1773 at St. Mary-le-Bow in London, Shipley spoke out against the exploitation of the colonies, whom he fondly admired, and stressed the need to maintain peaceable relations. Shipley was something of an optimist, as, during a time of heightened animosity, he believed that “a time… will come… when the checks and restraints we lay on the industry of our fellow-subjects… will be considered as the effects of a mistaken policy, prejudicial to all parties, but chiefly to ourselves” (xxii). A little more than two years later, the Bishop’s hopes were dashed, as the tensions between Britain and the colonies erupted in open warfare.

The copy of this sermon kept at John Bale Book Company is badly tattered and missing pages, but it occupies a unique place in the bookstore collection. According to co-owner Donato Gaeta, this booklet represents the earliest printed mention of Waterbury that he has encountered in his long career as a bookseller. The mention is brief, “The Rev. Mr. Scovil, Missionary at Waterbury, &c. in the former of his two letters, writes, that in Waterbury and Westbury there are 120 familes [sic], and 165 communicants” (Shipley, 24). Westbury and Northbury referred to the region now known as Watertown, which at the time was still part of Waterbury proper, but would split with the larger community in 1780. The Rev. Mr. Scovil referred to James Scovil, grandfather of the pioneer industrialist James Mitchell Lamson Scovill, whose legacy was one of the “Big Three” brass firms, the Scovill Manufacturing Company. The Rev. James Scovil “graduated from Yale College [in 1757] and two years afterward… became the rector of the Episcopal Church in the mission field of Waterbury, Northbury and what is now Bristol, Connecticut, becoming the first resident rector in Waterbury” (Pape, 5). This was a position that James Scovil would hold during the Revolutionary War, after which he moved to New Brunswick, Canada, indicating that he may have been a Loyalist.

Continue reading Bishop Jonathan Shipley: A Voice of Justice and Reason in Troubled Times

Thomas Lewis’s Peaceful End: A Return to the Soil That Nourished Him

This post was written by intern John McDonald.

The concept of a funeral sermon might seem strange to the 21st century mind. After all, eulogies, which are intimate, informal addresses often delivered by a spouse, relative, or friend of the deceased, have evolved to take their place. Funeral sermons, on the other hand, are formal, religious monologues delivered by a pastor or minister. One would imagine that such a treatment would be reserved for the passing of those whose significance is agreed upon by a large number. In the 18th and 19th centuries, however, funeral sermons were a rather common occurrence.

The title page of the sermon (mentioned to the right).

A booklet of sixteen pages, with a pale green cover and pressed title page, has been kept in the archives of the John Bale Book Company. It is a published funeral sermon, itself not an uncommon thing. The sermon is entitled “The Peaceful End of the Perfect Man.” It is notable for its extensive Biblical references, all italicized. The title of the sermon is derived from a passage in the Book of Psalms. “Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright; for the end of that man is peace” (3). The pastor whose words are recorded, Reverend Holland Weeks of the First Congregational Church in Waterbury, establishes the essential Christian dichotomy in the second sentence of his sermon, when he mentions that “mankind have but two general characters ascribed to them in the word of God… the just and the wicked… the perfect and the transgressor” (3). It can be seen that the words delivered by a man of God were of a single theme, whether delivered from a pulpit or by a graveside.

Reverend Weeks outlines “the perfection of the upright man” in the next section of his sermon. After a lengthy discourse on what this perfection does not consist of, he informs us that “the perfection of the upright man consists in his being holy and sinless at those particular moments only, whenever he is in the exercise of grace” (4). Experience has taught me how elusive these moments can be, both in literature and in life. This funeral sermon illustrates how the remembrance of one man can be a reflection of that grace, and how its published record can provide clues toward its greater historical context.

Noah Baldwin’s signature!

The sermon commemorates the passing of Thomas Lewis, an early resident of Waterbury. The cover of the booklet bears the signature of Noah Baldwin, another Waterbury man. The sermon was printed at the office of the Connecticut Herald in New Haven, as Waterbury did not have a newspaper in those days. The particulars are as follows: on April 30, 1804, Reverend Holland Weeks, pastor of the First Congregational Church in Waterbury, delivered a funeral sermon for Thomas Lewis, a candidate for the Gospel Ministry.

These were the days when the Congregational Church was pretty much the only game in town, or, at least, the only one that mattered if you wanted to be considered a proper, upstanding member of  Waterbury society. Reverend Weeks, a 1795 graduate of Dartmouth College, was Waterbury’s minister for the years of 1799-1806 (Bronson, 291). While Reverend Weeks proved a minor personage, the mystery of Thomas Lewis’s death seemed to promise more than the two lines dedicated to him in Henry Bronson’s History of Waterbury. This brief statistical passage on page 519 gives a rather terse summary of the life of the deceased, “Rev. Thomas, b. April 13, 1777, grad. Y.C. in 1798, and d. in Georgia, March 3, 1804” (519). Lewis’s gravestone, located in Hillside Cemetery in Naugatuck, lists the date of his death as being March 4, 1804. In the preface to his history, Bronson admits to making mistakes, and here is a rather minor one.

Continue reading Thomas Lewis’s Peaceful End: A Return to the Soil That Nourished Him

A “Bungled” Execution and a Doctor’s Guilt: The Horrifying Debut of the Electric Chair


This post was written by intern Sarah Davis.

In a newspaper article dated July 1932, Alphonse David Rockwell, a renowned New York State physician who was an important contributor to the development of the electric chair, stated, “It is the principle of capital punishment that I oppose…it is only a measure of vengeance, an admission of the law’s futility.” This newspaper article appeared more than forty years after the first man was executed by electric chair; an execution that Rockwell, for all his contributions to the project, did not attend. In the final years of his life, Rockwell would deeply regret his involvement in the development of the electric chair as a means of execution.

Known as one of the pioneers of electrotherapy, Dr. A.D. Rockwell found his medical calling in the days of the Civil War, when he enlisted as a regimental physician. Even as a young man, his “hard, skillful and faithful work” (“Life Story”) caught the attention of his peers and superiors alike, and his extraordinary medical talents earned him the distinction of becoming the Surgeon Major of the Sixth Ohio Cavalry, the youngest in the Union Army (“Life Story”).

After the war came to an end, Rockwell’s interest in medicine grew. He became the family physician of the Roosevelts, caring for the future president as a child, and building a relationship that would last into his later life. Indeed, Rockwell formed a number of important relationships throughout his life, as indicated by the vast amount of letters he preserved in the pages of a large bound album. In addition to correspondence from Teddy Roosevelt, Junior, Rockwell’s associates included First Lady Florence Harding, progressivist clergyman Lyman Abbott, and photographer Jacob Riis.

In addition to his general practice, Rockwell’s more specific interests lay in the promise he saw in electrotherapy. In 1867, Rockwell collaborated with Dr. George M. Beard to publish a book on their findings. Titled The Medical Uses of Electricity, 1stEditionInside2Beard and Rockwell’s work explored the medical benefits of utilizing electrical currents to treat symptoms of various neurological and physiological disorders. Rockwell was one of the first physicians to utilize these somewhat radical ideas regularly in his practice. His proficiency in the field of electrotherapy eventually earned him the title of Professor of Electrotherapeutics in the New York Post-Graduate School of Medicine (“Rockwell Dies”). It was this expertise in electrotherapy that was, simultaneously, Rockwell’s gift and curse.

When the New York State Legislature passed an 1887 reform declaring death by hanging to be inhumane, Rockwell was called to devise a new method of execution by electricity. Known for his friendships with a number of social reform advocates, Rockwell was staunchly opposed to the practice of capital punishment. Feeling that criminals could “be put to better use” than death, Rockwell followed the consensus that hanging was inhumane. “If the law must kill, let it kill decently,” he argued (“Rockwell Dies”). For Rockwell and many others, condemning a criminal to swing from the hangman’s rope was anything but decent.

Execution by hanging was the primary method of carrying out death sentences in the United States for much of the country’s history. Initially believed to result in quick, painless death, improper calculations often resulted in slow death by strangulation. A slight miscalculation could result in the condemned taking up to twenty minutes to die by asphyxiation, or, in extreme cases, being brutally decapitated by the snap of the rope (“Hanging”). Regardless of one’s personal views for or against capital punishment, many at the time felt that a more humane method needed to be devised.

Continue reading A “Bungled” Execution and a Doctor’s Guilt: The Horrifying Debut of the Electric Chair

The River’s Comeuppance

This photograph shows the damage of the flood. (Photograph 1)

This post was written by intern John McDonald.

The long and oft-contentious relationship between Waterbury and the Naugatuck River came to head on August 19, 1955 during the epic natural disaster known as the Black Friday Flood, or simply the Flood of ‘55. The devastation first visited the Chase Metal Works, whose buildings stood on the northern edge of town. A series of photographs, taken soon after the flood waters receded, illustrate the extensive damage. The rail lines which connected the Chase Metal Works with the nearby rolling mills and the transportation network of the Naugatuck River Valley, were twisted, mangled, or undercut by the raging water and swept off their beds (photographs 1 & 2 show the damage done to the railroads). Debris and sediment were deposited in many of the buildings, which, at one point, were under fifteen feet of water (see Photograph 4) Days later, portions of the complex were still covered by shallow pools of water (see Photograph 3) No lives were lost in this confrontation but the financial losses incurred by Chase were considerable. Along with rest of the Brass Valley, Chase was forced to regroup and rebuild, chastised by the angry river’s might.

Another image of the damage from the flood. (Photograph 2)

In order to gain a better understanding of the circumstances that led up to this catastrophic flood, it is necessary to consider the geology of the Naugatuck Valley region. In Western Connecticut, the rivers are swift and relatively shallow. They are hemmed in between high ridges, in from which numerous tributaries flow. The water drains from the uplands of gneiss and granite, which are largely unsuitable for farming, and into steep-sided valleys. The relatively precipitous gradient of the Naugatuck River and its tributaries was directly responsible for the industrialization of the region that would come to be known as the Brass Valley. The development of waterpower as the driving force of industry in the 18th and 19th centuries drastically changed these watercourses. Rivers and brooks were diverted, sequestered, and tamed. Mills sprang up in the narrow valleys, usually located close to the river banks.

IMG_0374In an 2011 article in the Waterbury Observer, Raechal Guest described how the relationship between Chase Brass and the Naugatuck River began around 1910, when Henry Chase purchased 25 acres of land in Waterville. On this relatively flat expanse by the river, Chase constructed a brass mill which began operations in 1912. The Naugatuck River was moved from its natural channel in 1914 to make way for an expansion of the mill. This was not the first major injustice to be done to the river, but the latest in a long line. For years, the river had been dammed, channelized, and put to work, first to supply water power, and then as a solvent for use in various manufacturing processes, and to transport waste products generated by the brass industry and the growing population of Waterbury. The latter practice had rendered the river nearly devoid of aquatic life forms by turning the once pristine waters into a chemical sewer.

Continue reading The River’s Comeuppance

“Echoes” of the Past – The Early History of Baseball in Waterbury, CT

This post was written by intern John McDonald.

photo 2
The reward for winning this game is a “purse of $50,” which, today, would be over $1,200!

If any one sport could be chosen as an exemplar of the American spirit, with its lack of affectation, its sincere enthusiasm, and improvisational gusto, it would be the game of baseball. Waterbury’s overall importance in the professional game has diminished since the major league affiliation was lost in 1986. However, in a 1997 article, Jack Cavanagh of the New York Times raised the possibility that Waterbury “may have the richest baseball history of any city in Connecticut.” Published ephemera recently discovered at the John Bale Book Company provides a glimpse into this history. Ten bills, or broadsides (single-sided advertising flyers), printed by Malone & Cooley of 74 Bank Street announce a series of games played between July 30, 1884 and August 30, 1885. These bills are just a quick snapshot in time, and offer little to go on, but with the assistance of several reference volumes, a narrative begins to form.

In the third volume of Anderson and Ward’s History of Waterbury, Arthur Reed Kimball places the origin of baseball in Waterbury in 1864 with the organization of the Waterbury Base Ball Club. The members were all city men and included those “prominent in… official and industrial life, [who were] the best representative amateur athletic talent of a city which has been especially devoted to this American game” (Anderson, 1104). Games were mainly played with teams from other Connecticut towns and cities, but Kimball notes that “excursions were even made to New York and into Massachusetts” (Anderson, 1104). In a situation similar to today’s imbalance of talent, the advent of professional baseball in the 1860s contributed to the decline of the amateur league, as the better players and team officials followed the money.

photo 1
This game, starting at 11:00 AM, shows that small and local businesses were granted time in order to play.

Waterbury’s rise to industrial prominence during the Gilded Age placed it in an enviable position. Professional baseball was brought to the city with “substantial financial backing” provided by local businesses. Bills printed in 1884 by Malone & Cooley announced “Waterbury’s New B.B. Grounds”, the location of which became evident after further research. Kimball describes how, after the establishment of the new professional league, “the grounds at the junction of the two railroads was fitted up” (Anderson, 1105). William J. Pape, in his Waterbury and the Naugatuck Valley, briefly discusses the railway network in the Waterbury region as it existed in the late 19th Century (92-94). In 1884, the pace of industrialization was still gaining momentum and the network consisted of two main lines; the Naugatuck Railroad and the New York and New England Railroad. A 1874 map of Waterbury in the University of Connecticut’s MAGIC collection shows the junction of these two railroads to be located close to the present-day Republican-American building in the downtown area. This building, which is crowned by a magnificent 240-foot Italianate clock tower, was once Waterbury’s main railroad station. This structure had yet to be built in 1884, when most of the land between Meadow Street and the Naugatuck River was undeveloped.

Continue reading “Echoes” of the Past – The Early History of Baseball in Waterbury, CT

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